Kermanshah (Persian: کرمانشاه, Kirmānshāh; Kurdish: Kirmaşan: کرماشان also known as Bakhtaran, Bākhtarān, Kermānshāhān and Qahremānshahr), the capital of Kermanshah Province, is located 525 kilometres (326 miles) from Tehran in the western part of Iran. According to the 2011 census, its population is 851,405. People mostly speak Southern Kurdish. Kermanshah has a moderate and mountainous climate.
In ancient Iranian mythology, construction of the city is attributed to Tahmuras, the third king of Pishdadian dynasty. It is believed that the Sassanids have constructed Kermanshah city and Bahram IV (he was called Kermanshah, meaning king of Kerman) gave his name to this city. It was a glorious city in Sassanid period about the 4th century AD when it became the capital city of Persian Empireand a significant health center serving as the summer resort for Sassanid kings. In AD 226, following a two-year war led by the Persian Emperor, Ardashir I, against “Kurdish” tribes in the region, the empire reinstated a local “Kurdish” prince, Kayus of Medya, to rule Kermanshah city . At the time, the term “Kurd” was used as a social term, designating Iranian nomads, rather than a concrete ethnic group.The word became an ethnic identity in the 12th and 13th century. Within the dynasty known as the House of Kayus(also Kâvusakân) remained a semi-independent kingdom lasting until AD 380 before Ardashir II removed the dynasty’s last ruling member.
Occupied by the Imperial Russian army in 1914, followed by the Ottoman army in 1915 during World War I, it was evacuated in 1917 when the British forces arrived there to expel the Ottomans. Kermanshah city played an important role in the Iranian Constitutional Revolution during the Qajar dynasty period and the Republic Movement in Pahlavi dynasty period. The city was harshly damaged during the Iran–Iraq War, and although it was rebuilt, it has not yet fully recovered.